16 Important Nutrients To Support Immune Health Naturally
Immune health is such an important topic, especially right now where there’s heightened focus on how to support resilience in this area. In this article we take a closer look at the research behind key nutrients and ingredients for supporting immune resilience throughout the autumn and winter months, and beyond.
Always at the top of the list for immune support. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, has anti-inflammatory activity and supports the body’s ability to fight infection. Vitamin C has been shown to shorten the duration of the common cold, and even prevent it in some conditions, for example when people are exposed to brief periods of intense physical exercise.1
In a 2017 study, intravenous vitamin C was successfully added to a protocol to significantly reduce mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.2 In fact, research is now underway to study the clinical efficacy and safety of vitamin C for the clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (the severe pneumonia which has been caused by the new coronavirus strain) through randomised controlled trials during this current outbreak.3
Vitamin C also helps to support a healthy stress response and so may have added benefit when worries are heightened.4 Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwi fruit, berries and bell peppers.
Vitamin D has been found to play a significant role in the function of the immune system, in both innate and adaptive immunity. In a 2017 review on vitamin D published in Clinical Therapeutics, vitamin D is described as a ‘pro-survival molecule’.
The authors commented, “vitamin D not only helps the immune system to be dampened during an excessive or chronic reaction (anti-inflammatory potential) but also to rapidly reach its completion or exhaustion, helping innate cells to kill bacteria or viruses. In this sense, vitamin D maintains its pivotal role as a pro-survival molecule.”5
Many immune cells express vitamin D receptors and vitamin D also enhances the antimicrobial properties of immune cells. In addition, our bodies naturally produce substances called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as the first line of defence against foreign invaders. This first line of defence is so effective that AMPs are often referred to as ‘natural antibiotics’. There are two main types of AMPs - cathelicidin and defensin, and research has shown that vitamin D specifically upregulates cathelicidin, thus supporting a robust immune response. A 2018 study found vitamin D status to be positively associated with plasma cathelicidin levels.6 A large 2017 study published in the British Medical Journal found vitamin D to be effective for preventing colds and flu.7
Maintaining healthy vitamin D levels is important for supporting the body’s ability to fight infection. Unlike most essential nutrients however, you can’t rely on food to keep your levels optimal. The main source of vitamin D isn’t food, but sunshine; your bare skin produces vitamin D when it comes into contact with the sun’s rays, so risk of deficiency is higher during the winter months and current estimates suggest that many people are low. It’s a good idea to get your levels checked at least once a year, and to add a daily maintenance supplement through the winter months.
Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid found in plant foods. Flavonoids have been found to have significant therapeutic potential.8 Their unique structural properties mean they have the potential to interact with different cell types and thus may be beneficial in the protection against disease. Several studies have found quercetin to be a useful anti-inflammatory support and to improve survival and decrease cell damage in a mouse model of sepsis.9-11
Extracts of elderberry have received much attention recently for their potential natural anti-viral activity. Studies have found elderberry extracts to be beneficial for reducing symptoms of influenza and the common cold. Elderberry is a rich source of powerful compounds called anthocyanins and it is considered that the possible anti-viral activity of elderberry may in part be mediated by ferulic acid, a compound which has been identified in plasma following intake of anthocyanins.12,13
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is perhaps a less obvious choice but may be a useful addition to immune support at this time of year, and particularly among the elderly. NAC is used in supplement form to supply the body with cysteine, an amino acid needed to support the body’s production of glutathione – a master antioxidant.
In a 6-month placebo-controlled clinical study, 262 mainly elderly subjects received either 600mg NAC twice daily or placebo. Those receiving NAC experienced significantly fewer influenza-like episodes and days in bed. The researchers also noted that even though the rate of viral infection was the same in both groups, only 25% of the group taking NAC developed symptoms compared to 79% in the placebo group. NAC may be particularly useful in the elderly due to the fact that plasma cysteine and glutathione levels tend to decline with increasing age.14-16
Selenium is an essential co-factor nutrient for the production of glutathione peroxidase and has significant antioxidant properties. Selenium deficiency seems to speed up the rate that viruses can mutate, and influenza has been found to be more pathogenic in selenium deficient mice.17,18 For general immune health, it certainly seems prudent to ensure that selenium levels are optimal. Brazil nuts, oats, sunflower seeds, fish, turkey and chicken typically contain good levels of this important mineral.
A severe deficiency of zinc is known to suppress immune function, and even mild to moderate deficiency can have a negative impact on the immune system’s ability to deal with infection. Zinc supports the function and proliferation of various immune cells.19,20
It’s notable that in the 2014 AREDS trial a significant 27% reduction in total mortality was observed in elderly subjects who received high dose zinc.21
Multiple studies have shown low levels of zinc are associated with increased risk of infections such as pneumonia in elderly adults and children in developing countries.22-24 Ensuring optimal levels of zinc, particularly in children and the elderly would therefore seem sensible. The body doesn’t have much ability to store zinc so it’s crucial that your daily diet supplies plenty of this immune boosting mineral. You’ll find high levels of zinc in meat, chickpeas & lentils, pumpkin and sesame seeds. You can also take extra zinc in supplement form to keep your levels topped up and gently support your immune function. If you regularly take zinc in supplement form however (such as in a daily multi) it is important to balance this with copper, as excess zinc can cause copper deficiency and vice versa.
Beta glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides found in bacteria and fungi, used to make cell walls and store energy. What’s particularly interesting about beta glucans is their incredible, natural ability to modulate immune function. Wellmune® is a commercially available beta glucan extracted from the cell wall of a proprietary strain of yeast. A 2018 randomised controlled trial studied the effects of Wellmune® yeast beta glucan on immune function and found it reduced cold/flu symptoms following intense exercise.25 These effects are significant since intense exercise is known to be a risk factor for upper respiratory tract infections. This latest research confirms findings from two previous studies which demonstrated immune modulating benefits of Wellmune® in capsule form.26,27
Several immune system functions rely on vitamin A and deficiency is known to impair the innate immune system28 (the non-specific ‘first line of defence’ part of the immune system). Vitamin A also regulates some genes involved in immune function. Vitamin A is found in the diet in two forms: beta-carotene (found in red, yellow and orange plant foods) and retinol, or ‘active vitamin A’ (found in high fat animal foods such as eggs, butter, liver and full fat dairy products). Beta-carotene must first be converted in the body before it can be used, hence why retinol is often referred to as ‘active vitamin A’. For targeted immune support, vitamin A is best supplemented as a mix of both retinol and beta-carotene. For ongoing support in a daily multi, it is best to stick to beta-carotene as your preferred source and include good sources of retinol in your diet.
The gut microflora have important roles to play in their interactions with the immune system, and supporting a thriving, diverse gut microbiome is an important part of ongoing immune health. Saccharomyces boulardii is a safe, non-pathogenic type of yeast which may help to support the immune system. In a 2007 study carried out on children with acute gastroenteritis the administration of S. boulardii (250 mg twice daily for 7 days) resulted in significant increases in CD8 lymphocytes, serum immunoglobulin A and decreases in C-reactive protein levels, suggesting that S. boulardii treatment enhances the immune response.29
Berberine is an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid found in many plants including goldenseal, barberry, goldthread, tree turmeric and Oregon grape. It has a wide range of potential therapeutic applications and has demonstrated broad spectrum anti-viral activity.
In a 2018 study published in Frontiers in Pharmacology researchers found that berberine improved the balance between key immune system components; T-regulatory and T-helper 17 cells. Berberine has also demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitising effects.30-39
Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) (Green tea)
Green tea leaf extract (Camelia sinensis) contains powerful polyphenols that include catechins. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the main catechins in green tea reported to deliver many of its widespread health benefits. Green tea also contains L-theanine, an amino acid which has calming effects.
Green tea has been found to modulate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and has demonstrated potential to target the SARS-CoV-2 main protease to reduce viral replication. In addition, a 2010 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 200 healthcare workers (in healthcare facilities for the elderly) to determine whether taking green tea catechins and theanine can clinically prevent influenza infection. Results showed that taking green tea catechins and theanine may be effective prophylaxis for influenza infection.40-42
A 2014 study demonstrated a potential zinc ionophore activity of flavonoids quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) – thus meaning these flavonoids could theoretically enhance zinc’s anti-viral effects.43
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in rich supply in red and black grapes, cocoa, peanuts and berries of the Vaccinium species including blueberries and bilberries. It has demonstrated NLRP3 inflammasome-modulating activity and has been found to have in vitro activity against MERS-CoV.44-46
A 2005 animal study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases found that resveratrol inhibits influenza A viral replication. The researchers concluded that resveratrol merits further investigation as a potential weapon for the growing threat of influenza.47 Research also supports a protective role of resveratrol in respiratory disease as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.48
Curcumin is the main active component of turmeric powder, extracted from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant and is known to deliver many health benefits. It is best known for powerful and widespread anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
As well as direct antioxidant activity, curcumin may also function indirectly by enhancing the synthesis of glutathione; a key intracellular antioxidant that plays an important role in cellular adaptation to stress. Studies have shown that curcumin increases cellular glutathione levels. Curcumin has demonstrated useful immune support properties including NLRP3 inflammasome-modulating effects and has also been identified as a potential inhibitor of COVID-19 main protease to reduce viral replication.49-60
Liquorice has a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and has demonstrated significant activity against viral replication and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Liquorice has been used in TCM formulations against SARS-CoV-1 and H1N1 and has been reviewed for its potential effects within a TCM formula as a preventative strategy in high risk populations against SARS-CoV-2.61-69
There is increasing evidence that certain antioxidant compounds have potent anti-viral activity. Glutathione is often referred to as the body’s master antioxidant and as naturopath physician Dr Joseph Pizzorno has said, “it is hard to overestimate the importance of glutathione”. RNA and DNA viruses can deplete host-cell levels of the master antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and administration of exogenous GSH has been shown to inhibit viral replication in several experimental systems.70-72
Supporting immune resilience starts with the foundations of good health
A vast wealth of natural compounds have demonstrated efficacy in supporting many different facets of immune health. There is no such thing as a magic bullet to better immune health however; supporting immune resilience starts with a varied diet, rich in natural and brightly coloured wholefoods and incorporates regularly getting a good night’s sleep, taking steps to combat stress, regular exercise and finally adding in targeted immune support compounds where needed.
Find out more on diet and lifestyle strategies to support immune health here.
1. Hemila H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing the common cold. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2013 Jan 31 (1)
2. Marik PE, Khangoora V, et al. Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C and thiamine for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. Chest. June 2017 Volume 151, Issue 6, pages 1229-1238
3. ZhiYong Peng. Vitamin C infusion for the treatment of severe 2019-nCoV Infected Pneumonia. Clinical Trials.gov February 11, 2020
4. Brody S, Preut R et al. A randomised controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002 Jan; 159(3): 319-24
5. Chirumbolo S, Bjorklund G, et al. The role of vitamin D in the immune system as a pro-survival molecule. Clinical Therapeutics. April 21 2017.
6. Georgieva, V et al. Association between vitamin D, antimicrobial peptides and urinary tract infection in infants and young children. Acta Paediatr. 2018
7. Martineau AR, Joliffe DA et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ 2017; 356: 16583
8. Romano B, Pagano E, Montanaro V, et al. Novel insights into the pharmacology of flavonoids. Phytother Res. 2013;27(11):1588–96.
9. Comalada M, Camuesco D, et al. In vivo quercetin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Eur J Immunol 2005 Feb; 35(2): 584-92
10. Zhu Y, Fan S et al. Quercetin confers protection of murine sepsis by inducing macrophage M2 polarization via the TRPM2 dependent calcium influx and AMPK/ATF3 activation. Journal of Functional Foods. Volume 56, May 2019, Pages 1-13.
11. Cui W, Hu G et al. Quercetin Exerted Protective Effects in a Rat Model of Sepsis via Inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Downregulation of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Protein Expression. Med Sci Monit. 2019 Aug 4; 25: 5795-5800
12. Hawkins J, Baker C, et al. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 42 (2019 February), pp. 361-365
13. McCarty MF, Assanga SBI. Ferulic acid may target MyD88-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling — implications for the health protection afforded by whole grains, anthocyanins, and coffee. Med Hypotheses. 118 (2018 September), pp. 114-120
14. De FS, Grassi C, et al. Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment Eur Respir J, 10 (7) (1997 July), pp. 1535-1541
15. DiNicolantonio JJ & McCarty MF. Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. Available online 12 February 2020.
16. McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly Age (Dordr) 37 (5) (2015 October), p. 96
17. Luo XM, Wei HJ et al. Selenium intake and metabolic balance of 10 men from a low selenium area of China Am J Clin Nutr 42 (1) (1985 July), pp. 31-37
18. Nelson HK, Shi Q et al. Host nutritional selenium status as a driving force for influenza virus mutations FASEB J 15 (10) (2001 August), pp. 1846-1848
19. Bao B, Prasad AS, et al. Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr 85 (3) (2007 March), pp. 837-844
20. Bao B, Prasad AS, et al. Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent. Am J Clin Nutr 91 (6) (2010 June), pp. 1634-1641
21. Clemons TE, Kurinij N, et al. Associations of mortality with ocular disorders and an intervention of high-dose antioxidants and zinc in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: AREDS Report No. 13 Arch Ophthalmol 122 (5) (2004 May), pp. 716-726
22. Brooks WA, Santosham M, et al. Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 999 -1004.
23. Meydani SN, Barnett JB, Dallal GE, Fine BC, Jacques PF, Leka LS, et al. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86:1167-73.
24. Black RE. Zinc deficiency, infectious disease and mortality in the developing world. J Nutr 2003; 133: 1485S-9S.
25. Mah, E, Kaden VN et al. Beverage containing dispersible yeast beta glucan decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Dietary Supplements. Published online 31 Oct 2018
26. Talbott S, Talbott J. 2009. Effect of Beta 1, 3/1, 6 GLUCAN on upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and mood state in marathon athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 8(4):509–515.
27. McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, McFarlin MA. 2013. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise. J Diet Suppl. 10(3):171–183. doi:3109/19390211.2013.820248
28. Stephensen CB, Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001; 21: 167-92
29. Ozkan TB, Sahin E, Erdemir G, Budak F. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute gastroenteritis and its relationship to the immune response. J Int Med Res. 2007 Mar-Apr;35(2):201-12.
30. Varghese FS, Thaa B, Amrun SN, et al. The antiviral alkaloid berberine reduces chikungunya virus-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. J Virol. 2016;90(21):9743-9757.
31. Wang J, Wang L, Lou GH, et al. Coptidis rhizoma: a comprehensive review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Pharm Biol. 2019;57(1):193-225.
32. Varghese FS, Kaukinen P, et al. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses. Antiviral Res. 2016; 126: 117-124.
33. Shin HB, Choi MS, et al. Inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus replication and virus-induced p38 kinase activity by berberine. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;27(1):65-68.
34. Dai Q, Zhang D, Yu H, et al. Berberine restricts coxsackievirus B type 3 replication via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK activation in vitro. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:1448-1455.
35. Wang YX, Yang L, Wang HQ, et al. Synthesis and evolution of berberine derivatives as a new class of antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 through the MEK/ERK pathway and autophagy. Molecules. 2018;23(8):E2084.
36. Cui H et al. Berberine regulates T reg / Th 17 balance to treat ulcerative colitis through modulating the gut microbiota in the colon. Front Pharmacol, 31 May 2018
37. Liu SJ, Yin CX, Ding MC, Wang YZ, Wang H. Berberine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of inflammatory molecules and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB via the activation of AMPK in vascular endothelial cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12: 5580 – 6.
38. Li CL, Tan LH et al. Comparison of anti-inflammatory effects of berberine, and its natural oxidative and reduced derivatives from Rhizoma Coptidis in vitro and in vivo. Phytomedicine. 2019 Jan; 52: 272-283.
39. Zhang H, Wei J et al. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism February 2010. Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 285-292
40. Tozsér J, Benko S. Natural compounds as regulators of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1Beta production. Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016: 5460302.
41. Adem S, Eyupoglu V, Sarfraz I, Rasul A, Ali M. Identification of potent COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors from natural polyphenols: an in silico strategy unveils a hope against CORONA. Preprints. Published online March 23, 2020.
42. Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:15.
43. H. Dabbagh-Bazarbachi. Zinc ionophore activity of quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate: from hepa 1-6 cells to a liposome model. J Agric Food Chem, 62 (32) (2014), pp. 8085-8093
44. Wood, L. G., Wark, P. A. et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in airway disease. Antioxid Redox Signal (2010) 13, 1535–1548
45. Tozsér J, Benko S. Natural compounds as regulators of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1Beta production. Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016: 5460302.
46. Lin SC, Ho CT, Chuo WH, Li S, Wang TT, Lin CC. Effective inhibition of MERS-CoV infection by resveratrol. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):144.
47. Palamara AT, Nencioni L, Aquilano K, et al. Inhibition of influenza A virus replication by resveratrol. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(10):1719-1729.
48. Euba B, López-López N, Rodríguez-Arce I, et al. Resveratrol therapeutics combines both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties against respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):12860.
49. Gupta SC, Tyagi AK, Deshmukh-Taskar P, Hinojosa M, Prasad S, Aggarwal BB. Downregulation of tumor necrosis factor and other proinflammatory biomarkers by polyphenols. Arch Biochem Biophys 2014; 559: 91-99.
50. Buhrmann C, Mobasheri A, et al. Curcumin modulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated inflammation in human tenocytes in vitro: role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Biol Chem 2011; 286: 28556-28566.
51. Gupta SC, Tyagi AK, et al. Downregulation of tumor necrosis factor and other proinflammatory biomarkers by polyphenols. Arch Biochem Biophys 2014; 559: 91-99.
52. Singh S, Aggarwal BB. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane). J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 24995-25000.
53. Sreejayan, Rao MN. Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997;49(1):105-107
54. Sreejayan N, Rao MN. Free radical scavenging activity of curcuminoids. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46(2):169-171.
55. Garcea G, Jones DJ, Singh R, et al. Detection of curcumin and its metabolites in hepatic tissue and portal blood of patients following oral administration. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(5):1011-1015
56. Dickinson DA, Levonen AL, Moellering DR, et al. Human glutamate cysteine ligase gene regulation through the electrophile response element. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37(8):1152-1159.
57. Dickinson DA, Iles KE, Zhang H, Blank V, Forman HJ. Curcumin alters EpRE and AP-1 binding complexes and elevates glutamate- cysteine ligase gene expression. Faseb J. 2003;17(3):473-475.
58. Zheng S, Yumei F, Chen A. De novo synthesis of glutathione is a prerequisite for curcumin to inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43(3):444-453.
59. Tozsér J, Benko S. Natural compounds as regulators of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1Beta production. Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016: 5460302.
60. Khaerunnisa S, Kurniawan H, et al. Potential inhibitor of COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) from several medicinal plant compounds by molecular docking study. Preprints. Published online March 13, 2020
61. Sun ZG, Zhao TT, Lu N, Yang YA, Zhu HL. Research progress of glycyrrhizic acid on antiviral activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2019;19(10):826-832.
62. Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet. 2003;361(9374):2045-2046.
63. Chen H, Du Q. Potential natural compounds for preventing 2019-nCoV infection. Preprints. Published online March 10, 2020.
64. Wang L, Yang R, Yuan B, Liu Y, Liu C. The antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice, a widely-used Chinese herb. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2015;5(4):310-315.
65. Lau JT, Leung PC, Wong EL, et al. The use of an herbal formula by hospital care workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Hong Kong to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, relieve influenza-related symptoms, and improve quality of life: a prospective cohort study. J Alternat Complement Med. 2005;11(1):49-55.
66. Zhang L, Chen B, Zeng H. Analysis of fangdu decoction on SARS and zero infection in hospital. Chin J Hosp Pharm (Chin). 2005;25:59-60.
67. Michaelis M, Geiler J, Naczk P, et al. Glycyrrhizin exerts antioxidative effects in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells and inhibits virus replication and pro-inflammatory gene expression. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19705.
68. Tong T, Hu H, Zhou J, et al. Glycyrrhizic-acid-based carbon dots with high antiviral activity by multisite inhibition mechanisms. Small. 2020;16(13):e1906206. doi
69. Luo H, Tang QL, Shang YX, et al. Can Chinese medicine be used for prevention of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? A review of historical classics, research evidence and current prevention programs. Chin J Integr Med. 2020;26(4):243-250
70. Cirolo MR, Palamara AT et al. Loss of GSH, oxidative stress, and decrease of intracellular pH as sequential steps in viral infection. J Biol Chem, 1997, vol. 272 (p 2700-8)
71. Nencioni L, Iuvara A, et al. Influenza A virus replication is dependent on an antioxidant pathway that involves GSH and Bcl-2, FASEB J, 2003, vol. 17 (p. 758-60)
72. Palamara AT, Cirolo MR et al. Glutathione replacement therapy in the treatment of viral infections, Program and abstracts of the 4th International Symposium on Combination Therapies, 1994 Washington DC Institute for Advanced Studies in Immunology and Ageing. p.99.
This website and its content is copyright of Nutri Advanced ©. All rights reserved. See our terms & conditions for more detail.
Most Popular Articles
Nutritionist Sarah Sharpe shares her experience of keeping her children William (3 years old) and Sophie (1 year old) well fed and balancing their differing diets.